Taiwan, officially the Republic of China, is a large island in the western Pacific Ocean that lies roughly 100 miles (160 km) off the coast of southeastern China. With scenic national parks, bustling night markets, beautiful Bhuddist temples, and a burgeoning nightlife scene, Taiwan has a lot to offer to over 10 million international visitors a year. Popular destinations in Taiwan include Taipei (the capital city), Kaohsiung, Taroko Gorge, Sun Moon Lake, Kenting Beach, and Yushan National Park.
Taiwan is a country located off the coast of southwest of Okinawa, Japan and north of the Philippines. The island has been governed by the Republic of China (ROC) since 1945. Shaped roughly like a potato, the island nation has more than 23 million people and is one of the most densely populated places in the world. Besides its crowded cities, Taiwan is also known for steep mountains and lush forests. ROC also has de facto control over two provinces: Taiwan (consisting of the island itself and the tiny Pescadores (Penghu)), and Fujian (Quemoy (Kinmen/Jinmen), and Matsu islands), which are often referred to as outlying islands by the Taiwanese. (Taiwan Wikitravel)